Introducing: Nerdio Tech Insider Community Program

Community Power

Within Nerdio, we have already experienced the power of the community firsthand and on multiple occasions. In fact, it is one of the main reasons why our product, Nerdio Manager for Enterprise is shaped the way it is.

Next to the various (potential) customers and partners we talk to on a daily basis, we are also involved with various community-driven activities. That’s how we learn what it is that you are missing, would like to see improved, and so on. 

Needless to say, it is of great value to us.

While we will continue to support other communities as we have done over the years, we also feel that the time has come to create a community of our own; hence the Nerdio Tech Insider program.

This program will be about YOU, and what we can learn from YOU. We have various ideas on how we would like to get you all involved with what is going on around Nerdio, though we do not expect anything in return aside from some honest feedback from time to time.

We have been getting a lot of questions on the Nerdio portfolio, specifically around Nerdio Manager for WVD. This will be the perfect way to learn more without any upfront commitments!

Our “Elevator Pitch”

This community will be about technology and technology alone. No marketing, sales, leads, or anything like that. We will focus on Windows Virtual Desktop, including the latest news around Nerdio Manager for WVD. We’ll provide tech insides, roadmap items, discussions, training, and of course a bunch of swag to go with it.

We want to learn from you. We value your feedback and any other comments, suggestions, or ideas you might have. And we don’t mind having a little fun while doing so.

What’s In It For Me?

I’m glad you asked. While your involvement in this program comes without a single string attached, we still like to take care of our members the best we can. Here’s what we would like to do/offer:

  • Community focused release of our software – more on this during the launch event
  • A training series on how to get started with and use Nerdio Manager for WVD
  • Best effort support and access to our engineering and sales team
  • Open discussions around Nerdio through our private Slack channel
  • Various other (training) topics around AVD, EUC, and Azure in general
  • From time to time, we will discuss upcoming (NDA) Roadmap items
  • The latest and greatest around our portfolio; we’ll make sure you hear about it first through the “Nerdio Heads Up” newsletter
  • For those who might be interested, we offer an interesting rebate/kickback program
  • Once allowed, or when things get back to “normal” again, we’d like to organize small dinner parties every once in a while
  • And of course, we will have various types of swag to hand out

Pretty sweet, right?

Who Should join?

AVD and Azure enthusiasts, Nerdio fans, existing (and potential) customers and partners, and everyone who might be interested.

This will be an excellent way to stay updated on everything we are working on, including a wealth of knowledge all merged into a single Slack Workspace. You will be able to collaborate with other Nerdio users (customers and partners), AVD enthusiasts, as well as various Nerdio employees. Ask questions, share experiences and use-case, tips, tricks, learn from each other, and so on. Come up with features requests and suggestions, or provide feedback in general. We would like to hear and learn from YOU!

How to Join?


Step one. Join our meetup page. This is where you will be able to RSVP to upcoming events, (training) webinars and such.

Step two. Join our private Slack channel. Our main platform for collaboration with other AVD and Nerdio enthusiasts, including various Nerdio employees. Share experiences, learn from others, and have a bit of fun. 

Feel free to use both of the Nerdio Tech Insider Community logos in any way you feel fit. Use them on your socials, websites, blog posts, for example; it’s all fine with us.

Looking forward to virtually meeting!

Bas van Kaam

Nerdio Field CTO, EMEA/UK

Check out Nerdio Manager for Enterprise by trying it for free for 30 days.

How Nerdio Manager Saves You These 4 Common Security Headaches

With the number of high-profile attacks and breaches continuing to rise alongside levels of sophistication, the average ransom payment amount, and even the number of organizations affected given widespread supply chain attacks – there’s no doubt security is a business-critical and board-level concern.

Given the dependence of security on IT admin bandwidth and end-users, virtual desktops hold a tremendous amount of potential for protecting and accessing data at scale. In helping enterprises simplify desktop virtualization and introduce new ways of working, our team at Nerdio also works deliberately to provide security advantages and reduce man-hours spent on time-intensive tasks whenever possible.

Below are four feature callouts illustrating how Nerdio Manager for Enterprise is positioned to help enterprise IT teams cut down and avoid potential security headaches.

1. Data Protection 

Users can automatically back up Nerdio Manager through scripted actions and store backups in an Azure storage account. Our desktop image versioning feature allows users to backup and restores desktop images to a previous version using Azure Backup. Data is appropriately encrypted both in transit and at rest.

We also provide options allowing enterprises to harden security at multiple levels. Please see our Knowledge Base articles for detailed instructions for hardening your app serviceAzure storage account and SQL.

Understanding the importance of ensuring data is protected and accessible no matter the circumstances, we’ve put together a quick set of guidelines to help with Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BCDR) planning and a few specific scenarios. Additionally, keep an eye on our socials and Release Notes page for expected updates this year regarding new DR features like active/active DR host pools!

2. Data Logs + Records 

Detailed data logs are important for IT team accountability, forensics, and analysis — even more so for highly regulated industries like financial services that require everything to be tightly monitored and controlled.

All actions in Nerdio Manager are logged and can be easily exported for further analysis if desired. Nerdio Manager records actions so companies can see and monitor all accounts and tasks happening across the Azure environment. Actionable dashboards show users, hosts, and applications utilization and performance, and alerting via Azure Monitor can be triggered on any combination of logged events.

3. Identity Management 

Because Nerdio Manager uses Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) for identity management instead of a custom-built solution, customers automatically benefit from Microsoft’s huge investment in securing identity across all Azure AD authenticated apps like Outlook and Word online, and across on-premises, hybrid and cloud-only environments. This allows you to enforce all the security tools available with Azure AD such as multi-factor authentication and conditional access.

4. Sensitive Customer Data 

Nerdio Manager for Enterprise is an Azure-based application that is installed in, and runs in, a customer’s own Azure subscription. Nerdio’s systems and staff do not collect or interact with customer data, like say a SaaS application would, and data is stored in the region you deploy Nerdio Manager to. Not only does this help from a security perspective but can also be important from a compliance perspective.

Are you ready to start saving time, money, and (security) headaches when it comes to enterprise virtual desktop deployments? Visit the Azure Marketplace today to start your 30-day FREE trial of Nerdio Manager for Enterprise!

Winner Winner! Nerdio Voted ‘Best Newcomer’ at CRN XChange 2021

Xchange best newcomer award

Like many industry peers and friends I’ve come to know through channel and tech events – I am a people person. I thrive on the connection and new thinking that can come when we get the chance to meet up face-to-face and without screens. Over the past year and a half, like many, I transitioned to a work from anywhere and work from home environment and a large portion of that time was spent interacting virtually with my team, partners and clients.  Last month we began resuming a few in-person events smaller in size, but I didn’t know exactly how much I was missing big, annual in-person events until I attended The Channel Company’s Xchange 2021 this week.  

It marked Nerdio’s first ever attendance at XChange – an event dedicated to helping attendees build strategic business relationships, determine business agendas, and set the future direction of the channel. We participated in the Exhibition Hall, boardrooms and networking events – and took home the tremendous honor of being voted ‘Best Newcomer’ by over 200 MSPs in attendance as part of the 2021 Xcellence Awards!  

As a company new to XChange but established in the MSP industry and well steeped in the unique needs of managed service providers, we felt great about our position and relationships in the channel prior to the event and even more so now. I am incredibly proud of our team and amazed at how eager and collaborative our employees are in finding new ways to reach and help companies looking to benefit from Microsoft Azure and desktop virtualization.  

While the Best Newcomer award is one of the event highlights – there are MANY more. I’ve recapped a few of my favorites for those who couldn’t attend XChange this year or who have never been. It is an event like no other and Nerdio can’t wait to be back next year.  

Top XChange 2021 ‘Newcomer’ Highlights 

  • Exhibition Hall Energy – Event organizers optimized this year’s Exhibition Hall to allow for more space between booths and make attendees feel comfortable. We saw a lot of excitement and interest from attendees stopping by our booth to learn more about Cloud PCs and how Windows 365 differs from Azure Virtual Desktop. The energy was palpable!  
  • Boardrooms – The Boardrooms were arguably my second favorite highlight as we were put in front of MSPs and folks who expressed interest in our space and even sometimes solutions. The effort The Channel Company puts into “matchmaking” boardrooms ahead of the event paid off in ensuring the educational content we shared about demystifying Azure was of value to the MSPs who participated and that everyone walked away feeling their time was well spent.  
  • Sincere and Authentic Interactions – As mentioned, I do love connecting (and reconnecting) with people. Because The Channel Company and CRN are channel staples, I got to see people who don’t usually attend all of the same channel events we do at Nerdio. For example, I caught up with a few of CRN’s wonderful journalists on-site and got face time with partners and distributors I hadn’t seen in a while.  


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ): Windows 365 Cloud PC

Here are some of the common questions we have seen and heard from partners and customers surrounding the recently-released Windows 365 Cloud PC from Microsoft. If you have other questions you’re wanting to know, please comment below and we will update this post.

What is Windows 365 Cloud PC? 

Cloud PC is a Microsoft 365 subscription-based service where you pay a fixed price per month for a dedicated, personal desktop

Is Windows 365 replacing Azure Virtual Desktop? 

No, Windows 365 Cloud PC is a new service and is complementary to Azure Virtual Desktop.

What is the biggest difference between Windows 365 and Azure Virtual Desktop? 

Windows 365 Cloud PC is a fixed-price monthly subscription service with a single-user desktop assigned to each user and is part of Microsoft 365 suite. Azure Virtual Desktop is a consumption-based service where you only pay for what is used. AVD offers personal and pooled desktops as well as RemoteApps, while Windows 365 is all about persistent single-user desktops.


Will Nerdio Manager support Windows 365? 

Yes, Nerdio Manager for MSP and Nerdio Manager for Enterprise support Windows 365 from day one.

Will I be able to use both Windows 365 and Azure Virtual Desktop with Nerdio Manager? 

Yes, you can deploy and manage both Windows 365 and Azure Virtual Desktop in Nerdio Manager. This gives you the flexibility to choose the virtual desktop solution that makes sense for your use case. You can even manage both AVD and Windows 365 from the same Nerdio Manager console.

What advantages do I have when using Nerdio Manager to manage Windows 365 as opposed to native Microsoft tools? 

Existing Nerdio customers are able to manage AVD and Windows 365 in the same console. We also make it easy to deploy Windows 365 by enabling you to create provisioning policies, network connections, and user settings as well as manage your images, restart, and re-provision Windows 365 – all within the familiar Nerdio console.

What type of users would benefit from Windows 365? 

If your users want dedicated performance delivered by single-user desktops, then Windows 365 may be the product for them. Windows 365 licenses are fixed price and you don’t need to worry about auto-scaling.

How many Windows 365 versions are there? 

There are 2 versions of Windows 365: 1. Enterprise – designed for enterprise and SMB customers and managed through Microsoft Endpoint Manager. 2. Business – designed for very small businesses and managed directly by the desktop’s end user.

What are the minimum requirements for the Enterprise Cloud PCs? 

The requirement is somewhat similar to Azure Virtual Desktop. At a minimum, you need an Azure subscription, VNETs configured with communication to Active Directory and Azure AD Hybrid Join Enabled, and, of course, a fully configured Microsoft Endpoint Manager environment.

What are the requirements for Business Cloud PCs? 

There are no Azure or identity requirements. To set up a Business Cloud PCs, you just need to assign a Business Cloud PC license in the Microsoft 365 Admin Portal and the new desktop will be provisioned for the user.

Is Azure Active Directory Domain Services supported? 

Azure Active Directory Domain Services is not supported with Enterprise Cloud PCs.

What do I need to do if I only have Azure Active Directory Domain Services? 

You will need to migrate all your users from your Azure Active Directory Domain Services to a full Active Directory domain and configure Hybrid AD Join. Azure AD Join will be supported in the future.

Will my Windows 365 Cloud PC be shared with other users? 

With Windows 365, you are assigned to your own personal desktop, so you are guaranteed performance and availability. With Azure Virtual Desktop, you have the option to run multi-session desktops where multiple users can use the same VM and same on infrastructure costs.

Do I need a profile management solution like FSLogix for Windows 365? 

No. Windows 365, by default, uses a local profile and does not need an FSLogix since you always log into the same VM. The profiles are stored on the C: drive and should be backed up.

Can I use my own custom image in Windows 365 Cloud PC? 

Yes, with Enterprise Cloud PCs you can use a custom image that you upload, and you can also use an image created using Nerdio Manager. With Business Cloud PCs, custom images are not supported and you must use an Azure Gallery Windows 10/11 image.

Does Windows 365 need a separate license? 

Yes, it does. You assign a Windows 365 license on a per-user basis via the Microsoft 365 Admin Portal.

How do I connect to my Windows 365 desktop? 

You connect the same way that you do with your existing AVD Desktop. You can use the Remote Desktop Client or a web portal (

How can I integrate Windows 365 into my existing environment? 

With Enterprise Cloud PCs, Microsoft manages the Cloud PC VM and OS disk resources. However, the virtual NIC is injected into your own VNET which gives you connectivity to your existing resources like file servers, Active Directory, and application servers. When you configure the Cloud PC provisioning policy, you select which VNET to use for the provisioning of the VMs. With Business Cloud PCs, Microsoft fully controls the compute and networking and you cannot connect the desktops to your own network.

If I am using Windows 365 Enterprise, am I still responsible for configuring identity and networking? 

Yes, you will need to configure Active Directory and any network configurations in Azure (i.e., VPNs/VNETS/Azure Firewalls, etc.)

How do I provision a Windows 365 Cloud PC for my users? 

There are two different methods. For the Enterprise, you need to configure a provisioning policy that associates the network connection and a desktop image. You then assign an Azure AD Security group to that policy and anybody who is added to that security group will automatically get a Cloud PC if they have a Cloud PC license assigned. The provisioning of the VM is performed by Microsoft Endpoint Manager. This can be performed via the Nerdio console or Microsoft Endpoint Manager console. With Business Cloud PC, provisioning happens automatically as soon as a license is assigned to a user via the Microsoft 365 Admin portal.

Can I use Windows 10 EVD multi-session with my Windows 365 Cloud PC? 

No, Windows 365 is Windows 10 or 11 Enterprise single session only.

How can I install software into my Windows 365 image? 

With Windows 365 Enterprise, you can create an image using Nerdio Manager with all software pre-installed. Alternatively, you can create a custom image in the Azure portal or use Microsoft Endpoint Manager to deploy software onto the Windows 365 Cloud PCs. With Windows 365 Business, custom images are not available. You must use the Azure Marketplace images and install any software manually.

How do I control Windows Updates on my Windows 365 Cloud PCs? 

Windows updates for Enterprise are to be deployed via Microsoft Endpoint Manager or manual methods.

How do I monitor my Windows 365 Cloud PCs? 

Enterprise Cloud PCs can be monitored via Endpoint Analytics.

If I need advanced monitoring of my environment, what are the options? 

If you need advanced monitoring, then you can use Azure Virtual Desktop with Azure Log Analytics and Azure Insights to create custom dashboards.

If I am using an Enterprise Cloud PC what costs am I responsible for? 

With the Enterprise Cloud PC, you still pay for networking costs as all traffic passes through your VNET.

If I am using a Business Cloud PC, what costs am I responsible for? 

With Business Cloud PC, you only pay for the license. Compute, storage, and networking managed by Microsoft, and you are not responsible for the costs.

Do I need to use a separate client with Windows 365? 

No. Windows 365 uses the existing Azure Virtual Desktop brokering system so you can use the Remote Desktop app or web portal at

What licenses do I need for Windows 365? 

To use Windows 365 Cloud PC, you need a Windows 10 Enterprise subscription; the same as AVD. You need to purchase a license for Windows 365 via Microsoft 365. If you are using Windows 365 Enterprise, you also need an Intune license, which you can get as part of 365 E5/E5 or Business Premium.

What Nerdio licenses will I need for Windows 365? 

You will still need to Nerdio license if the Windows 365 Cloud PCs are to be managed via Nerdio. The pricing and license type will depend on whether you are using Nerdio Manager for MSP or Nerdio Manager for Enterprise.


What different Cloud PC SKUs are available? 

There are 12 Cloud PC sizes ranging from 1 vCPU to 8 vCPUs, 2 GB to 32 GB of RAM, and 64 GB to 512 GB of storage.

Is it cheaper or more expensive to run Windows 365 compared to AVD with Nerdio Manager? 

It depends on the usage of the environment. Windows 365 is a per-named-user licensing model, so you pay for the license whether you use it or not. Using Nerdio and Azure Virtual Desktop, you’ll only pay for what you actually use.

In what scenario would it make sense to use Windows 365? 

When your users need dedicated, persistent desktops and you’re already licensing and using Microsoft Endpoint Manager to manage your existing desktops, then Windows 365 is a clear choice.

How to Choose Between Windows 365 and Azure Virtual Desktop (AVD): A Business Perspective

“Is Windows 365 an oversized iPhone or a small laptop without a keyboard?” 

This was the question many were asking when the iPad was first introduced by Steve Jobs in 2010.  Today, more than a decade later, we know that it is neither.  iPad created a brand-new tablet computing category.  It didn’t replace the smartphone and didn’t make the laptop obsolete.  It created new use-cases and markets for tablet devices.  

With the introduction of Windows 365 in July 2021, a similar question is being asked.   

“Is Windows 365 a new type of virtual desktop or a replacement for a physical PC?”  

On one hand, Windows 365 Cloud PCs are virtual desktops similar to those delivered by Azure Virtual Desktop and other similar services.  On the other hand, it is a personal Windows device that is managed and behaves the way a physical device does.  Cloud PC is likely to create a new category of computing.  One that will complement both the physical PC and virtual desktop. 

In this article, I will compare Windows 365 to the existing Azure Virtual Desktop service that many are already familiar with and analyze several use-cases where Windows 365 is the right choice and somewhere AVD is the way to go.  In a future article, we’ll compare Windows 365 Cloud PCs to their physical equivalents.   

If you’re interested in a deep dive comparing Windows 365 to Azure Virtual Desktop across several technical dimensions like architecture, IT administration, end-user experience, and licensing and infrastructure costs then take a look at Windows 365 vs. Azure Virtual Desktop (AVD) – Comparing Two DaaS Products

6 use-cases where Windows 365 is a better fit than Azure Virtual Desktop

1. Fewer than 10 desktops 

If there are a small number of desktops in the IT environment, then Windows 365 Business is the perfect choice.  It does not require any pre-requisites like AVD does.  For example, there is no need for an Active Directory configuration or a storage location for FSLogix containers.  Therefore, from an ease of deployment, management, and cost-effectiveness perspective Windows 365 Business is a clear winner. 

2. No current/planned Azure footprint 

Some organizations have simple, cloud-only IT environments with Microsoft 365 and other SaaS products and no infrastructure footprint in Azure with no plans to add any such infrastructure.  In this scenario, Windows 365 Business is an excellent choice because it is easy to assign desktops to users and there is no administrative overhead for IT admins. 

3. No prior desktop virtualization experience 

Only a small fraction of Windows devices are virtualized today with technologies like AVD.  Desktop virtualization is a complex technology requiring a specialized skill set.  Many organizations do not possess such a skill set and are not looking to build it.  In this scenario, Windows 365 Enterprise is a great option.  It does not require knowledge of multi-session administration, profile encapsulation, auto-scaling, and other complex concepts found in AVD.  Instead, it provides a simpler way to deploy and manage Cloud PCs alongside existing physical PCs in much the same way.   

4. Current investment into Microsoft Endpoint Manager 

Organizations that have already made an investment into Microsoft Endpoint Manager to administer physical desktops and laptops will find Windows 365 an easy way to extend their existing environment with Cloud PCs.  Similar policies can be used to manage both physical and Cloud PCs. 

5. Personalized desktops and local admin rights 

Cloud PCs are designed to be dedicated, personalized VMs belonging to each individual user.  These users may need the ability to administer their own PCs by installing software or making other configuration changes that require local administrator rights.  Windows 365 Cloud PCs make it easy for IT to delegate administration of Cloud PCs to their users.   

6. Users need to access desktop 24/7 

Auto-scaling is a common way to save on Azure costs when using Azure Virtual Desktop.  Cloud PCs, on the other hand, run 24/7 and shutting them down does not save any costs.  If users need access to their Cloud PC on a 24/7 basis (or even more than 55 hours per week), then Windows 365 is not just easier to deploy and manage, it is also more cost-effective. 

3 scenarios where Azure Virtual Desktop may be a better fit than Windows 365 

1. RemoteApp application streaming 

Sometimes all that’s needed is a published application rather than a complete Windows desktop session.  In these scenarios using a full Cloud PC (or AVD desktop) would be overkill and a published RemoteApp application is a better way to go.  Since RemoteApps cannot be published from Windows 365 Cloud PCs, Azure Virtual Desktop is the preferred choice. 

2. High fluctuations of number of desktops needed throughout the month 

Windows 365 licenses are monthly subscriptions.  Once purchased, they are available for use and the cost is incurred regardless of users actually making use of their desktops.  In IT environments where numbers of virtual desktop users fluctuate throughout the month, AVD may be a better fit.  Azure Virtual Desktop infrastructure costs are only incurred when users are actually consuming the resources whereas Windows 365 costs are incurred as soon as a per-user license is purchased. 

3. Cost is primary consideration 

When cost is the primary consideration and pooled Azure Virtual Desktops can be used to consolidate several users on a shared VM, then AVD will be the better option since it will be more cost-effective than Windows 365 in this scenario.  On average, pooled AVD desktops are up to 58% less expensive than dedicated Cloud PCs.  Even auto-scaled personal AVD desktops can be up to 9% cheaper than Windows 365 equivalents if users only utilize their desktop 50 hours per week.  Finally, Windows 365 costs are determined by the number of users with assigned Cloud PCs, regardless of actual usage.  Azure Virtual Desktop infrastructure cost is determined by the number of concurrent users, which is often much lower than the total number of users assigned to desktops. 

Comparing Cloud PC license costs vs. AVD Azure consumption 

There are several considerations that come into play when deciding on the right virtual desktop technology for your organization.  Microsoft provides customers with ample choice and meets customers where they are in terms of admin tooling, existing licenses, and Azure expertise.  Here we’ll explore the cost efficiency of different virtual desktop use cases and determine when Windows 365 fixed-price licenses are more cost-efficient than usage-based AVD infrastructure costs.  For this discussion, we’ll assume that Windows OS licensing costs are the same in both AVD and Windows 365 scenarios and focus exclusively on the cost of the infrastructure. 

Windows 365 license costs depend on the hardware specs needed by a user.  Each desktop comes with a certain number of vCPUs, GB of RAM, and SSD storage.  If we align the vCPU and RAM configuration of each Cloud PC license with a comparable Azure VM size and managed disk we can then compare their costs side-by-side. 

Since Cloud PCs are dedicated, persistent desktops they are most similar to AVD personal desktops. If we compare Cloud PCs with equivalently sized personal AVD desktops, using a VM on a 3-year reserved instance, we’ll see that the prices are very similar and Windows 365 is slightly less expensive for some sizes and much more cost-effective for the largest VMs.  On average, Windows 365 is 11% cheaper than a comparably sized Azure VM and managed disk running 24/7 on a 3-year reserved instance. 

If we assume that users are using their personal AVD desktops 50 hours per week (10 hours X 5 weekdays) and the VMs are stopped the rest of the time, then there will be cost savings by using personal AVD desktops with pay-as-you-go VM pricing and powering them off outside of the 50 work hours (70% of the time).  There are a few scenarios when Cloud PC is about the same cost as an AVD personal desktop, but on average, Azure Virtual Desktop personal desktops are 9% cheaper than Cloud PCs in this use-case.  

Let’s take this a step further and assume that not all users need a dedicated personal desktop and groups of users can be pooled together on multi-session AVD session hosts.  We can see that there are significant per-user savings with AVD pooled desktops using Reserved Instances (RI).  On average, the cost of a pooled Azure Virtual Desktop user on VMs that run 24/7 using 3-year reserved instances is 53% lower than Windows 365

Combining pooled AVD desktops with auto-scaling provides the deepest savings when using Azure Virtual Desktop as compared to Windows 365.  Assuming that users are working 10 hours/day, 5 days/week the average savings is 58% when using pay-as-you-go VMs with auto-scaling. 

Another important consideration is that Cloud PCs are priced per-named user.  Meaning that a license is consumed for every user who is assigned to a Cloud PC – regardless of whether this user ever connects to the desktop.  AVD desktops, on the other hand, only consume infrastructure when concurrent users are logged in.  If no users are connected, no session host VMs need to be powered on.  As more users log in, more infrastructure is brought online to accommodate the demand.   

In most environments, user concurrency is a fraction of the total named users at any given time – often 50% or less.  This means that the cost savings in an AVD desktop environment will be even greater than presented in the tables above when concurrency is considered. 

In summary, we see that Windows 365 Cloud PCs are most cost-effective when users need dedicated, persistent desktops and will be using them more than 55 hours per week.  With users who do not need dedicated, persistent desktops, there is significant infrastructure cost savings by using pooled desktops and auto-scaling technology.